In the world of software development, unit testing is a concept already understood and quite widely adopted as good practice throughout various teams and industries. You write a failing test, then write the code to make it pass and rinse repeat if you closely follow Test Driven Development.
In the data land however, this is not usually an area explored much at all as engineers would code up some complex SQL statements and transformation tasks in the data software of their choice but not store it in version control nor having automated tests to verify it still works as intended as it goes through iterative changes.
If you are using a tool like Snowflake, you can easily write integration tests for things like your procedures or UDFs if you use them to run your data transformation tasks. With Databricks however, the landscape is a bit different in some aspects in that we can also dip our hands into unit testing, so lets find out why!
Before we commence, please note that any examples and discussions below regarding unit testing will be focused on users who are currently writing their code in
python 3 and running orchestrations via
Databricks Workflows as
Delta Live Tables are a separate topic altogether.
The following topics will be covered here as we make our way to unit testing. If you are already familiar with points 1-3, them skip to the last section at the bottom
Delta Lake is the open source storage framework providing key features such as ACID transactions and time travel features. Delta Lake is not only compatible with Spark but is also what Databricks utilises for data storage and table management. As a result the types of tables we will be dealing with for the most part are delta tables. The storage format of these delta tables are basically parquet files.
You can see more details in the official docs delta.io if you wish to learn more. Interesting stuff!
Apache Spark is an analytics query engine which is good for large scale and batched data workloads, machine learning and real time analytics. Long story short, Databricks is built on Spark and PySpark and hence knowledge in those areas could help quite significantly.
Apache Spark also supports APIs for developing in R, Java, Scala and Python. This translates to Databricks as well as you find that our notebooks can be written purely as a bunch of SQL commands or in one of those languages as listed above but alas, we will be focusing on Python and PySpark (the python library that interfaces Apache Spark).
You can read more on this in the official docs for
While integration testing on Databricks is not covered in this blog, is essential in my opnion that time and effort are still dedicated into comprehensively writing these out as well using a library like
Great Expectations, running in a notebook and serving as an additional step at the gold layer of your workflow. This serves its purpose to verify that data quality standards are constantly met and if anything unexpected comes up, we fail the workflow and generate a detailed visual report for users to view and understand what the unexpected data is before it gets to the consumers.
With that said, defects in data quality may appear as a consequence of the following scenarios such as regression in our data transformation logic or changes in upstream system which resulted in changes to data layout, representation, schema and so forth.
So it seems that integration tests for our data pipeline is plenty beneficial but why stop there? One of the benefits of unit testing is that we get to rapidly ensure our
code meets quality standards and detect certain regressions earlier in the development lifecycle. This gives us more confidence to move faster, as code can get committed and deployed more frequently. Lets now dive into the details of unit testing our code.
Admittedly, this will not be without it’s own interesting challenges, as most of your notebooks will also be making calls to Databricks libraries such as the auto loader, dbutils, contexts objects and apis etc. This also includes any global calls to the spark session object. We can’t really include those calls in our test suite as they would require the Databricks runtime and that is something we wont be able to spin up our local machine or CI pipeline for that matter. Conversely, what we can setup to run locally is both
Delta Live and
First call to action is to think carefully about what you want the scope of the unit tests to be. In most cases from experience it would boil down to the data transformation logic. We will have to do a bit of refactoring if necessary to isolate all logic related to Spark data frames in a single testable function while keeping the Databricks runtime libs out. We may choose to do this by having variables as fakes for those libraries passed in as arguments in the test or relocate the calls outside the function instead.
One other thing we will definitely need to do is to construct a Spark session object which will be passed in a as function argument where you run those data frame operations. This is because Databrick’s global spark object will not be available outside the runtime.
The next thing to take into account is that you will always have a main loop in your notebook that immediately executes the full ingestion code when a Databricks job is kicked off. If we want to effectively import the notebook and test the data transformation function we will need a way to prevent that. More examples on this later.
Now that we have the overall landscape of what to expect, lets dive step by step into how we can setup and write unit tests which will run on our local machine and also in the ci/cd pipeline.
Required Python Dependencies
For starters, assuming you already have python on ci/cd and your local machine, you will need the following bare minimum PyPI dependencies installed as well.
- pyspark - we can install this without requiring to install Apache Spark separately
- pytest - alternatively, use unittest which is an in-built standard Python library
Key consideration here is to closely align the version of delta-spark and pyspark to Databricks as much as possible to try and prevent as much as possible scenarios where code may run in Databricks but fail in tests or vice versa. Few things you can do here are:
Check out databricks runtime release notes to ensure that the Apache spark version you install is closely aligned with the version of Databricks you have running
Check out delta release notes to ensure that delta-spark version you install is compatible with the Apache Spark version in step 1.
Configuring Docker For Local Test Execution
Once we have the dependencies specificed in a requirements txt file or poetry toml file (if you use Poetry), the next step would be to create a docker compose solution for local development, so that it always installs a preset Python and OpenJDK versions and including pip dependencies, leaving less avenue for ‘works on my machine’ type of issues. This can be achieved similar to the block of code below:
FROM python:3.9.5 RUN apt-get update && apt-get install openjdk-11-jdk -y RUN pip3 install -r requirements.txt CMD export PYSPARK_SUBMIT_ARGS='--packages io.delta:delta-core_2.12:2.2.0 pyspark-shell' \ pytest path/to/tests/**/*
If you are curious as to why theres no Apache installation steps above, remember that we are will be installing pyspark instead which will suffice for local development activities.
Most of the other config is stock standard, with the exception of the
PYSPARK_SUBMIT_ARGS. Its one of those things you need to set to run these tests as a workaround certain known issues with running locally. At the end of the day, these are arguments that end up being supplied to
spark submit which is a script that Spark uses to launch apps on a cluster.
Why you might still ask? well, the purpose behind each argument is as follows:
io.delta:delta-core_2.12:2.1.0- defines the maven artifact dependency of delta-core_2.12 for the version 2.1.0. You must match the version with precisely what you defined as the
delta-sparkpip dependency. If you are not sure what artifact name and versions are available currently, see the maven repository.
pyspark-shellspecifies to use the pyspark java class when running spark jobs locally.
version: "3.9" services: test: build: context: . dockerfile: Dockerfile container_name: test volumes: - .:/src
Then we can run
docker-compose up to re-run the tests whenever we make changes or create new ones locally. The volume mount directory in the compose file will depend on your project structure, so always double check this value.
Create Configure Spark Session In Test Hook
At this point, we can focus on what the code requires. We will need a before hook that configures our local spark session so our tests can use it. This implication here is that any delta tables that are created will be placed on our local file system, but thats the advantage of it in my opinion when it comes to testability.
In your before hook for all tests, you will need to create a local spark session object (see code below). What’s important is that we use
configure_spark_with_delta_pip to ensure that the Delta Lake Maven JARs are installed and is hence one of the few reasons why we specified the
delta-spark dependency to begin with.
from pyspark.sql.session import SparkSession from delta import configure_spark_with_delta_pip import pytest @pytest.fixture(scope="session") def spark(): builder = SparkSession.builder.appName("local-spark-session").config("spark.sql.extensions", "io.delta.sql.DeltaSparkSessionExtension").config("spark.sql.catalog.spark_catalog", "org.apache.spark.sql.delta.catalog.DeltaCatalog") return configure_spark_with_delta_pip(builder).getOrCreate()
See the docs local delta lake setup if you wish to learn more.
Writing Our First Test
If you have come this far, we have one last task at hand which is adapting our notebook code to be testable. If you recall, I made mention about the code always having a main loop that runs when a Databrick’s job is started. If that runs in our local environment it will fail for obvious reasons of not having access to the Databricks runtime.
So lets say we have a hypothetical scenario where we want to verify that a transformation function we have written works by taking a dataframe containing a list of people and filtering out where their date of birth is equal to or greater than 01 Jan 1991, one suggestion is that we can structure our code as below.
import pyspark.sql.functions as F from os import env def transform_dataset(df): return df.select("name", "dob").where(F.col("dob") >= F.lit("1999-01-01") ) def run_main_loop(): # run main job here if dbutils is not None: run_main_loop()
The simplest way is checking if Databrick’s global variable dbutils is available to determine if the notebook should run in offline mode so to speak (of course there are probably more elegant ways to do this).
So when we get to a stage of writing our unit test, we can import this file as such:
import pyspark.sql.types as T from databricks_notebook import transform_dataset import pyspark.sql.functions as F from datetime import date def transform_dataset(df): return df.select("name", "dob").where(F.col("dob") >= F.lit("1999-01-01") ) def test_date_filter(spark): schema = T.StructType([ T.StructField("name", T.StringType(), True), T.StructField("dob", T.DateType(), True), ]) data = [ ( "John", date(1978, 5, 8) ), ( "Tim", date(1999, 2, 8) ), ( "James", date(1996, 6, 9) )] df = spark.createDataFrame(data=data, schema=schema) transformed_df = transform_dataset(df) results = transformed_df.collect() assert len(results) == 1 assert results["name"] == "Tim"
Q: I’ve got the latest version of Python but I am receiving error such as
_pickle.PicklingError: Could not serialize object: IndexError: tuple index out of range when I run my tests… halp!
A: Check the Py readiness docs https://pyreadiness.org/3.11/ to see that PySpark is supported for the desired python version (i.e. 3.11).
Well thats about it!, hope this was helpful by some measure.
As a final note, you can expand the scope of your test if you wish by importing the code that creates your destination table for the initial setup, then running the function that transforms and merges the data in there.
Struggling with unit testing? We can help! Contact us to get started!